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NECK AND THROAT

Tonsils and adenoids

Tonsils are two round lumps located at the back of the throat. Tonsils can be seen by opening the mouth wide and sticking the tongue out. Adenoids are glands located above the roof of the mouth, behind the nose and cannot be easily seen.

Tonsils and adenoids are part of everyone’s immune system and serve an important purpose. Both help to tra bp bacteria and viruses that enter through our mouth and throat. They contain antibody producing immune cells that kill the bacteria and viruses before they enter our body. Tonsils and adenoids often become enlarged when they are warding off pathogens. As they trap the germs they can also get infected causing swelling, soreness and pain. Swallowing may hurt in such a situation.

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    Tonsillitis is the infection of the tonsils. Though it is common in children, but it can infect people of all ages. An ENT examination of the throat and tonsils is done. If tonsillitis is diagnosed, then a throat culture is done to determine if the infection is viral or bacterial.

    Adenoids can become infected and can block a child’s airway. Children can have breathing problems, ear infections, and at times chronic infections can lead to snoring, sleep apnea, fluid in the ear. A physical exam by the ENT and an X-ray would determine the diagnosis and mode of treatment.

    Removal of tonsils (tonsillectomy) and/or adenoids (adenoidectomy) is recommended if infections become chronic and persistent and cause blockages that cause snoring or sleep apnea. Surgery is a common procedure and one can expect a full recovery.

    Frequently asked questions (FAQs) 

    Q1: What are the symptoms of tonsillitis?

    A1: Symptoms of tonsillitis may include a sore throat, difficulty swallowing, swollen and red tonsils, fever, and sometimes white or yellow patches on the tonsils. Tonsillitis can be caused by viruses or bacteria.

    Q2: When is the removal of tonsils or adenoids necessary?

    A2: Removal of tonsils (tonsillectomy) and/or adenoids (adenoidectomy) may be recommended when infections become chronic and persistent, leading to recurrent tonsillitis or when they cause airway blockages, which can result in issues like snoring or sleep apnea.

    Q3: Is tonsil and adenoid removal a common procedure in children?

    A3: Yes, tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are common procedures in children, particularly when they experience recurrent tonsillitis or adenoid-related issues such as breathing problems, ear infections, or sleep disturbances. However, these surgeries can also be performed on adults if necessary.

    Q4: What can I expect during the recovery after tonsil or adenoid removal?

    A4: The recovery period after tonsil or adenoid removal can vary, but it typically involves some discomfort and pain for a few days. You may need to stick to soft foods and avoid spicy or rough-textured foods. It’s essential to follow post-operative care instructions provided by your healthcare provider for a smoother recovery process.

    Thyroid

    The thyroid gland is an organ located at the front of the neck, just below the larynx or the voice box. It is wrapped around the windpipe, almost like a butterfly with wings spread. Thyroid makes hormones that are responsible for controlling the metabolism of our body. Hypothyroidism (less hormones) and Hyperthyroidism (excess of hormones) are the two main indications of a thyroid disease.

    The entire hormonal production and activity is controlled by the pituitary gland, located in the center of the skull below the brain. Either condition of thyroid produces different symptoms that are managed differently. Blood tests, imaging tests are some of the ways of diagnosing thyroid diseases.

    Thyroid conditions like thyroiditis, thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, compressive thyroid mass, that may or may not require surgery, are best treated by an ENT specialist.  Surgery may cause the voice to change and the ENT doctor is trained to manage it because ENT doctors are voice surgeons as well. Thyroid function tests, thyroid scans and ultrasonography are some of the tools that an ENT doctor uses to diagnose the condition and severity of nodules.

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      Frequently asked questions (FAQs) 

      Q1: What are the common symptoms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism?

      A1: Common symptoms of hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) can include fatigue, weight gain, cold sensitivity, and depression. In contrast, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) may lead to symptoms like weight loss, increased heart rate, anxiety, and excessive sweating.

      Q2: How is a thyroid condition diagnosed, and what tests are involved?

      A2: Thyroid conditions are typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure thyroid hormone levels. These tests can include TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone), T3 (Triiodothyronine), and T4 (Thyroxine) levels. Imaging tests such as thyroid scans and ultrasonography can provide additional information about the thyroid’s structure and function.

      Q3: When is thyroid surgery necessary, and what are the potential effects on the voice?

      A3: Thyroid surgery may be necessary for conditions like thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, or compressive thyroid masses. An ENT specialist is trained to perform these surgeries, and they take care to minimize the impact on the voice. However, any surgery near the throat area can potentially affect voice quality, and the ENT doctor is well-equipped to manage and address any voice changes that may occur as a result of thyroid surgery.

      Laryngitis

      Larynx is the ‘voice box’ and inflammation of the larynx is called laryngitis.

      Inside the larynx are the vocal cords that open and close smoothly, helping us speak or form sounds through their movement and vibration. Overuse, irritation or infection can cause the vocal cords to become inflamed resulting in a hoarse voice. Laryngitis may be short-lived (acute) or long lasting (chronic). Viral or bacterial infections, vocal strain, smoking, acid reflux are some of the causes that trigger laryngitis. An ENT doctor examines your vocal cords by doing a laryngoscopy to decide the course of treatment.

      Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

      Q1: What are the common symptoms of laryngitis?

      A1: Common symptoms of laryngitis include hoarseness or loss of voice, a sore throat, dry cough, and a feeling of irritation or discomfort in the throat. In some cases, there may be additional symptoms such as a low-grade fever and difficulty swallowing.

      Q2: How long does laryngitis typically last?

      A2: The duration of laryngitis can vary. Acute laryngitis, often caused by a viral infection, usually lasts for a few days to a couple of weeks. Chronic laryngitis, which can result from long-term irritation or underlying medical conditions, may persist for several weeks or longer.

      Q3: Can laryngitis be treated at home, or is medical intervention necessary?

      A3: Mild cases of acute laryngitis can often be managed at home with rest, hydration, and avoiding irritants like smoking or excessive talking. However, if laryngitis is severe, chronic, or if it significantly impacts your daily life, it’s advisable to seek medical attention, as an ENT doctor may need to determine the cause and provide appropriate treatment, which may include voice rest, medication, or other interventions.

      Dr. Atul Kumar Mittal

      Dr. Atul Kumar Mittal

      Speciality:     Otorhinolaryngologist (Ear, Nose and Throat)
      Experience:   33+ years of experience
      Hospital:        Fortis Memorial Research Institute,Gurgaon,Delhi NCR

      About Doctor:

      • Atul Mittal is an eminent E.N.T. Specialist, with a sound experience of 25 years of practice and surgical proficiency.
      • He is the Director of ENT at Fortis Memorial Research Institute,Gurugaon, with his efficacious leadership skills.
      • He has successfully managed his practice and staff in providing patients with quality care. Read More

      FMRI

      Fortis Memorial Research Institute (FMRI) 

      Number of beds:  1000
      ICU Beds:                  298
      Airport Distance:  17 KMs

      About Hospital:

      • Fortis Memorial Research Institute was established in 2001.
      • It is an outstanding multi-speciality quaternary care hospital,having the top-notch infrastructure, advanced equipment, highly qualified and experienced medical professionals and super sub-specialists.
      • Fortis Hosptial Gurgaon is an advanced centre of excellence in Robotic Surgery, Neurosciences, Oncology, Renal Sciences, BMT, Organ Transplants, Orthopaedics, Cardiac Sciences and Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Read More
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